PAULSSON, INC. (PI)
THE LEADER IN FIBER OPTIC SENSING SOLUTIONS
With Fiber Optic Sensors, Deployment, Data Acquisition and Real-Time Processing Technologies, Paulsson, Inc. (PI) offers Extremely Sensitive, High Bandwidth, Accurate, Robust, 3C/4C Seismic, Strain, and Temperature Sensing Solutions. These sensor technologies apply to Sub-Surface Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery (EOR), Natural Gas Storage (CH4), Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Green Energy Storage (H2), Geothermal, and Pipeline Surveying and Monitoring.
Paulsson is the Inventor and Sole World-Wide Provider of Broad-band, High-Fidelity, Fiber Optic Seismic Vector Sensors (FOSVS™), Fiber Optic Pressure Sensors (FOPS™) and Borehole 3C Vibratory Source technologies.
Paulsson also provides Enhanced Rayleigh, Raman and Brillouin Scattering Fiber Optic High-Pressure and High-Temperature Ultra-Large Sensor Arrays. These arrays are used to monitor Acoustics, Temperature, and Strain in Real-Time for Surface and Sub-Surface Applications.
A MESSAGE FROM OUR FOUNDER & CEO
A NAME YOU CAN TRUST
PROJECT PARTNERS INCLUDE
... AND MANY OTHER LARGE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY COMPANIES
Paulsson invents, designs, manufactures, and deploys fiber optic sensors as well as develops data driven algorithms and processes the recorded data. Paulsson supports a wide range of applications and industries including:
• Clean Energy (UGS, CCS, EGS & H2S)
• Underground Gas Storage (UGS)
• Carbon Capture Storage (CCS)
• Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)
• Green Hydrogen Storage (GH2S)
• Infrastructure Monitoring
• Enhanced Hydrocarbon Recovery (EOR)
• Government (DOE, DOT, CEC)
THE LEADER IN STATE OF THE ART FIBER OPTIC SENSING SOLUTIONS
Paulsson, Inc. is a vertically integrated optical instrument development and energy services company that designs, manufactures, and deploys fiber optic sensors and sensor arrays. The Paulsson team of experts develop data driven algorithms and processes our and client third party data. Paulsson has partnered with private companies and public institutions to develop cutting edge technologies and processes. Paulsson has partnered with:
• National Laboratories
• Government Agencies
• Energy Companies and Utilities
• Research Institutions
EXPERIENCE. KNOWLEDGE. INTEGRITY.
The Paulsson, Inc. staff has many decades of combined sensor and geophysical experience, enabling the design of state-of-the-art fiber optic instruments and their interrogators. Furthermore, we provide laboratory and field installations, perform surveys and monitoring services using our proprietary sensors and deployment system. We collect and process our high fidelity data into high resolution 3D images.
Paulsson, Inc. records and processes the following types of all-optical data:
DATA YOU CAN TRUST...
Paulsson's experts deliver the most accurate data providing high-resolution images and new insights!
To make the most informed decisions, accurate data is required! Getting a sufficient amount of the correct data is often the hardest part of the decision making process, especially when it comes to energy.
INTELLIGENCE YOU CAN RELY ON
Paulsson provides deployment, recording, processing, and analysis of all-optical, 3D/3C acceleration, acoustics, pressure, temperature and strain data acquired from the harshest high-temperature, subsurface and surface environments. Paulsson's first-class services and delivery exceed industry standards, placing Paulsson above the competition.
• Acoustic and Enhanced Acoustic
PIONEERING SURVEY, DATA ACQUISITION & RESERVOIR MONITORING SINCE 1997
PIONEERING THE FUTURE OF PIPELINE SAFETY
BY PAULSSON, INC.
PG&E, in partnership with Paulsson Inc. and UC Berkeley, is revolutionizing pipeline safety in seismic-prone areas of Central and Northern California. Leveraging a PHMSA grant, they've installed innovative distributed fiber optic sensing (DFOS) technology on gas transmission lines. This groundbreaking approach enables accurate, real-time monitoring of pipeline strain without the need for costly excavations. Originating from a successful small-scale trial on the Hayward Fault, the technology has now been expanded to a major installation over the Calaveras Fault near Gilroy, completed in May 2023. This initiative marks a significant advancement in ensuring pipeline integrity and safety, showcasing Paulsson Inc.'s pivotal role in pioneering seismic monitoring solutions for the oil and gas industry.
PAULSSON IS A 3D/4D VSP PIONEER AND WORLD RECORD HOLDER!
In 2002 and 2003, Paulsson performed the first time-lapse surveys of CO2 injection into a reservoir, setting a new standard for time-lapse imaging of carbon sequestration.
CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ACTION!
This Production Grade time-lapse survey of CO2 injection in a reservoir was recorded, processed and interpreted by Paulsson.
Borehole Seismic Time-lapse surveys (4D VSP) to monitor 574 acre CO2 depth amplitude maps at 4,800ft showing the CO2 plume.
Increased reflectivity in the Monitor Survey 2003 at a depth of 4,800 ft at the well is due to the injected CO2. Also seen is the increased reflectivity around the water injector wells.
PIONEERING CCUS BOREHOLE SEISMIC HIGH-RESOLUTION
DATA ACQUISITION, IMAGING AND MONITORING SINCE 2002!
We've dusted off a few of our earliest papers and presentations from our archives,
which can be viewed or downloaded at the links below.
For our continuously expanding collection of research reports, papers and presentations
please visit our Papers & Presentations page.
Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc. (P/GSI) was founded in 1997 and reorganized as Paulsson, Inc. in 2009. Both companies were founded by Björn N.P. Paulsson, Ph.D. to develop and expand the field of Advanced Borehole Seismology. He pioneered cross-well seismic time-lapse imaging at the U.S. Department of Energy for site characterization of nuclear waste storage sites. He also started Chevron's advanced borehole seismic time-lapse research program.
• GEOPHYSICS SURVEYING AND MONITORING
Paulsson, Inc. will combine its unique experience with its advanced data acquisition hardware and imaging software solutions capable of real-time processing to assure that any surveys will meet the objectives of the clients and operators.
High-Temperature Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Site Characterization
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)
Paulsson's team of experts strive to deliver the most accurate sub-surface data that provide insights so clients can make better and more fully informed drilling and operational decisions. Getting a sufficient amount of correct data is always the hardest part of the decision-making process, especially in the energy fields.
SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM
Björn Paulsson, PhD
CEO & President
44 Years of experience in Borehole Seismology
CHEVRON CHAIRMAN'S AWARD
FOR INVENTING A DOWNHOLE
VIBROSEIS SEISMIC SOURCE
CHAIRMAN OF SEG DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION COMMITTEE
• FIBER OPTIC TECHNOLOGIES
Paulsson, Inc. provides a number of optical sensor solutions, including high pressure and high temperature, ultra-sensitive 3C Fiber Optic Seismic Vector Sensor (FOSVS) arrays, Enhanced Distributed Acoustic Sensors (EDAS™), Fiber Optic Pressure Sensors (FOPS™), and Distributed Temperature Sensors (DTS), for deployment in all well conditions.
With the highest pressure and temperature rating available on the market today, along with high sensitivity pressure sensor, Paulsson, Inc. fiber optics technologies have been used for:
• Underground Gas Storage
• Geothermal Wells
• Carbon Sequestration
• Advanced Oil Recovery
• Micro Seismic Monitoring
THE PAULSSON TEAM
Paulsson, Inc. has a talented, dedicated, multi-disciplinary team of scientists, engineers, technologists and machinists. Paulsson also has state-of-the-art design and manufacturing facility for optical sensors, electronics and deployment technologies. Our team also provides state of-the-art processing and imaging technologies and services.
Paulsson Engineers and CEO Björn Paulsson on site surveying and monitoring an Underground Gas Storage (UGS) facility near Stockton, CA.
TAKE A BEHIND THE SCENES VIDEO TOUR
OF PAULSSON'S STATE OF THE ART FACILITIES
Paulsson, Inc. is headquartered in a 12,000 Sq.ft. State-of-the-Art facility in Southern California since 2010. We are a high technology company specializing in sensor development, sensor manufacturing, data acquisition and imaging services for the energy industries. Paulsson, Inc. is focused on fiber optic sensors including 3C accelerometers, acoustic, temperature, pressure, strain sensors and interrogators. Paulsson, Inc. also designs and develops specialized multi-component, high-frequency seismic sources.
FIBER OPTIC SENSING
IS GAME CHANGING
Paulsson, Inc. is the leading high-technology optical sensor and borehole seismic source developer and provider for the energy and sub-surface industries. Located in Southern California, Paulsson was started in 2007 and has been developing and providing world record services using conventional and fiber optic sensors, deployment and processing technologies. Applications include geophysical and reservoir engineering services such as imaging, monitoring, exploration, development and production of energy resources.
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE (UGS) INCLUDING GREEN HYDROGEN (GH2)
Paulsson, Inc. provides surveying, monitoring and real-time in-field data analysis of Underground Gas Storage (UGS) reservoirs using its proprietary fiber optic sensors, interrogators, processing and imaging technologies. This area includes the emerging field of green hydrogen.
CARBON CAPTURE UTILIZATION AND STORAGE (CCUS)
Our sensor technologies can characterize geological Carbon Capture Utilization Storage (CCUS) processes and facilities in ultra-high resolution. It can also detect small casing leaks, and geological interbed gas flows, as well as monitor the structural integrity of critical equipment with extreme sensitivity and precision.
ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM (EGS)
Paulsson, Inc. provides surveying, monitoring and characterization of high temperature geothermal reservoirs at temperatures up to 600°F (300°C), and pressures up to 25,000 psi (172 MPa) using its proprietary optical vector seismic, acoustic and pressure sensors and proprietary 3D time-lapse processing and imaging.
SUSTAINABLE ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY (EOR)
Specialist in development and production of geophysics equipment, with over 32 years of experience and systems deployed in multiple countries around the world, Paulsson, Inc. offers systems using industry standard geophones, tailor made to fit your project requirements.
GAS PIPELINE MONITORING (NG, H2, HYTHANE, AND CO2)
Our technology is perfect for monitoring Natural Gas (NG), Green Hydrogen (GH2), and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) infrastructure including production facilities, pipelines and Underground Gas Storage (UGS) sites. We are working with National Laboratories and the Gas Industry to develop hydrogen pipeline monitoring.
FAULT IMAGING AND MONITORING
Paulsson's earthquake monitoring technologies use advanced fiber optic accelerometers and large acoustic sensor arrays. Our sensors can be attached to micro-seismic real-time monitoring networks. Paulsson is tracking seismic activities in earthquake prone areas, and delivers real-time location of earthquakes near and far.
GEOTECHNICAL IMAGING AND MONITORING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Paulsson's high frequency surface seismic source (5-1,600 Hz) and ultra-high resolution fiber optic acoustic and vector sensors provide safe surveying and monitoring technology for roads, rails, bridges, dams and other above ground infrastructure.
RAPID PROTOTYPING AND CONTRACT MACHINING
Paulsson, Inc. has a highly skilled and experienced team of engineers and machinists operating a state-of-the-art prototyping and micro-capable machining facility. We specialize in rapid-prototyping and testing to deliver best-in-class custom products with emphasis on swift and continuous communication with the client to meet the needs and desired specifications. Paulsson has developed a tried-and-true system to bring a client’s product from concept to production.
CONSULTING TO DESIGN BOREHOLE SEISMIC SURVEYS
Paulsson's experts consult on the design, supervision, and monitoring of geophysical instrument installation, operations, data acquisition,
processing and interpretation.
In addition, we can provide recommendations on optimal methods and survey design based on local geography and reservoir conditions.
Paulsson's experts consult on cable and instrument design for fiber optic sensing and monitoring systems for UGS, CCUS, EGS and EOR operations.
THE PAULSSON 3C OPTICSEIS
IS GAME CHANGING
With a versatile, state of the art, in-house machine shop, Paulsson manufactures both Paulsson's proprietary products and custom solutions to fit your applications - all at any required precisions.
Paulsson's real-time monitoring and imaging solutions bridge the technological gap between high-resolution imaging & monitoring, and high-precision drilling. Paulsson's extremely accurate survey and monitoring systems use innovative proprietary fiber optic sensors, processing and analysis technologies.
Our fiber optic sensors are world class in both bandwidth and data fidelity. For example, Paulsson invented the world's first high pressure and temperature non-electronic all-optical 3C sensor arrays capable of operating at 25,000psi and 600°F (~300°C).
OPTICAL POINT SENSORS
FIBER OPTIC SEISMIC VECTOR SENSORS (FOSVS)
Paulsson's large 3C seismic vector sensor arrays uses fiber optic accelerometer technologies for deployment in the harshest of conditions in vertical, deviated and horizontal wells. They have a much larger bandwidth, and can be deployed at much greater temperatures than geophones.
FIBER OPTIC HYDROPHONES (FOH)
Paulsson's cutting-edge fiber optic hydrophones uses pressure compensated mandrels. This technology measures the dynamic acoustic pressures at high frequencies and is incorporating thermal effects. It is used in oil and natural gas prospecting, production monitoring and earthquake inspection.
FIBER OPTIC PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE SENSOR ARRAYS (FOPTSA)
Paulsson offers fiber optic pressure and temperature sensors that require no downhole electronics. Paulsson is the first to offer these all-optical sensor arrays that measure up to 25,000psi at 600°F (~300°C).
2021 Fiber Optic Seismic Sensor System Installation
ELECTRICAL POINT SENSORS
Large channel-count geophone arrays, up to 400 3C receivers, at custom intervals for 1D/2D/3D/4D Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) are Paulsson's specialty. Real-time micro seismic monitoring can effectively be derived from this cutting-edge deployment technology.
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR ARRAYS
Piezoelectric sensors and sensor arrays accurately measure acceleration, pressure, or acoustics.
The Paulsson OpticSeis™ Pod deployed in a plexiglass 7inch simulated casing.
OPTICAL DISTRIBUTED SENSORS
ENHANCED DISTRIBUTED ACOUSTIC SENSORS (EDAS™)
EDAS are acoustic sensors in a single fiber. They are created by enhancing the coherent Raleigh backscattering in the fiber and can be manufactured in long arrays of many thousands of sensors. It allows for fiber optic sensing of acoustic waves at a broad range of frequencies that travel through the surrounding environments.
DISTRIBUTED STRAIN SENSORS (DSS)
With DSS, Paulsson's clients get the right data to determine the best insights. This innovation addresses extreme sensitivity and capability. It measures 10,000s changes in both temperature and strain along the length of an optical fiber.
DISTRIBUTED TEMPERATURE SENSORS (DTS)
Clear insights are derived from the enhanced visualization of temperature data using DTS, which monitors temperature over long distances or across large surfaces. This technology is used for underground and ocean floor power cables.
3C SEISMIC BOREHOLE CLAMPED VIBROSEIS SOURCES
3C BOREHOLE: AXIAL, RADIAL, TORSIONAL, VIBROSEIS SOURCES & DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM
Paulsson's patented downhole seismic sources provide unequaled high signal-to-noise ratio 5 - 1,600 Hz P, SV and SH-wave data. The Paulsson deployment system assures optimal clamping, complete attenuation of tube waves, accurate depth control and deployment in both vertical and horizontal long-reach wells.
Paulsson Patented Borehole Axial Vibrator & Deployment System
PROVIDES LAB AND FIELD TIME-LAPSE TESTING
The Paulsson, Inc. R&D team is trusted by DOE, DOT - PHMSA and the California Energy Commission (CEC) to develop new sensors, sensor deployment, data acquisition and data processing technologies.
BOREHOLE OPTICAL SENSORS
• Fiber Optic Accelerometers (FOSVS™)
• Large-Array Fiber Pressure Sensors (FOPS™)
• Large-Array 3D/4D VSP (3D VSP)
• Large-Array Cross-Well Seismic (CWS)
• Single-Well Seismic System (SWSS™)
• Large Enhanced Acoustic Sensors (EDAS™)
•. Large-Array Temperature Sensors (DTS)
• Large-Array Strain Sensors (DSS)
Paulsson Energy Service Technologies Optical Lab
Optical Sensors: DAS, DTS DSS
FIBER OPTIC SEISMIC VECTOR SENSORS (FOSVS)
The Paulsson FOSVS is an optical accelerometer capable of recording seismic events smaller than Moment Magnitude of M-6 in the field with an energy smaller than 1 micro Joule at frequencies over 10,000 Hz.
LARGE-ARRAY 3D/4D VSP (3D VSP)
The Paulsson Large Array Optical Seismic Sensors allow for cost effective 3D/4D VSP data acquisition.
LARGE-ARRAY CROSS-WELL SEISMIC (CWS™)
The Paulsson Large-Array Optical Seismic 3C Receiver System, deployed in one well, will in combination with the new large bandwidth seismic source, form an effective cross well seismic imaging system.
SINGLE-WELL SEISMIC SYSTEM (SWSS™)
Paulsson has created a unique and proprietary non-destructive clamped 3C borehole non-destructive vibratory seismic source. This development is part of creating an effective high-frequency large-bandwidth single-well optical seismic imaging system. The system combines the Paulsson 3C Fiber Optic Seismic Vector Sensors (FOSVS) and our new borehole seismic vibratory 3C source. The source-receiver system has been tested at frequencies from 5Hz to 1,600Hz with a 3,200Hz potential. Applications include imaging targets far from the instrument well, up to 6,000 feet (2km), essentially creating an ultra-long range 9C seismic logging system.
Paulsson Scientist reviewing Optical Sensor data.
Panoramic shot of our custom field instrument room. Instruments are on UPS and isolated using a vibration isolation platform that is also ESD safe. Room is fully wired for generator hookup or hardwired power.
LARGE-ARRAY PRESSURE SENSORS (DPS)
The Paulsson proprietary Large-Array All-Optical High-Temperature Pressure Sensors can be integrated with all borehole sensor and source systems. This unique sensor allows Paulsson to deliver a full set of critical operational and reservoir parameters with one system deployed once.
DISTRIBUTED ENHANCED ACOUSTIC SENSORS (EDAS™)
The Paulsson Large Enhanced Distributed Acoustic Sensor Arrays are integrated with all borehole point and disrtibuted sensor and source systems.
DISTRIBUTED TEMPERATURE SENSORS (DTS)
The Paulsson Large Distributed Temperature Sensor Arrays are integrated with all pipeline and borehole sensor and source systems.
DISTRIBUTED STRAIN SENSORS (DSS)
The Paulsson Large Optical Strain Sensor Arrays are effectively deployed on or near pipelines, providing protection for fault or landslide movements. Another application includes instrumenting the casings during completion of wells.
FOSVS sensor inside a test apparatus with a calibrated accelerometer for feedback to a shaker.
Two shaker systems are available - one for testing single sensors, and another for testing entire housings.
Winding machine is located in a Class 1000 rated clean room.
Our Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) workstation located in our Class 1000 rated clean room. We use the FBG workstation for optical sensor research, development and manufacturing.
Fiber winding machine for manufacturing the FOSVS sensor blocks, fiber optic hydrophones, and delay coils.
MONITORS ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURES
Paulsson's Sensors and High Frequency Vibratory Seismic Sources have a wide range of applications across many industries that span both Commercial and Public sectors.
INTELLIGENT DATA FOR THE OIL & GAS AND GREEN ENERGY INDUSTRIES
The Paulsson team of experts understand all energy decisions are long-term and therefore must be based on timely, accurate and high-resolution data. Creating a sufficient amount of high-fidelity relevant high-value data is often the most difficult part of the decision making process, especially in the fields of energy.
COMMERCIAL FOCUS AREAS
CLEAN ENERGY (EGS, GREEN H2, UGS, CCUS)
Paulsson is pioneering all-optical distributed and point sensors for clean and green energy solutions:
• EGS - Enhanced Geothermal Systems - need Ultra High Temperature Sensors (UHTS™) to characterize sub-surface reservoirs and monitor supercritical steam.
• GH2™ - GREEN H2 - Characterize, monitor and safe-guard the underground reservoirs used for storing GH2™ generated by hydrolyzing water using energy from wind, solar, and geothermal power plants.
• UGS - Underground Gas Storage - Characterize, monitor and safe-guard UGS reservoirs, used for storing Methane and Hythane. The UGS industry today is a $500 billion industry projected to grow to $750 billion by 2026. The UGS industry today operates over 400 sites and 15,000 wells.
• CCUS - Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage -Characterize, monitor and safe-guard underground storage of CO2. The CCUS industry is projected to drill 14,000 wells in the United States by 2050.
ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY (EOR)
Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) President, Alain Labastie, stated in 2011 “The current ultimate average recovery factor for oilfields, on a worldwide basis, is about 35%. This means that about two-thirds of the oil that has been discovered is left within the reservoir. We have under our feet, in well-known locations, enormous prospects for booking new reserves. Increasing the average ultimate recovery factor from 35% to 45% would bring about 1 trillion barrels of oil!”.
Increased recovery requires the use of high-resolution and accurate depth-imaging of oil and gas reservoirs using borehole seismic.
Borehole seismic is the Paulsson specialty!
By increasing the oil and gas recovery rate from existing reservoirs, we avoid the need for drilling many new wells, reducing the environmental impact from oil and gas development and production.
PUBLIC FOCUS AREAS
In addition to subsurface energy applications, Paulsson's team of experts apply advanced fiber optic sensors to monitor above ground public & commercial infrastructure such as pipelines, railways, bridges, and dams.
GOVERNMENT AND UNIVERSITIES
Paulsson, Inc. has received a large number of competitive grants from Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Transportation (DOT - PHMSA), and California Energy Commission (CEC).
With these generous grants from the Federal and California State Governments, Paulsson has developed a number of distributed and point optical sensors, deployment methods and data processing technologies, which include:
• Fiber Optic Seismic Vector Sensors (FOSVS™)
• Fiber Optic Hydrophone Arrays (FOHA™)
•. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Arrays (FOPSA™)
• Enhanced Distributed Acoustic Sensors (EDAS™)
• Distributed Temperature Sensor Arrays (DTSA™)
• Distributed Strain Sensor Arrays (DSSA™)
• Large Borehole 3C Geophone Arrays (LB3CGA™)
- Up to 400 Levels
• Piezoelectric 3C Sensor Arrays (P3CZA™)
• National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
• National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)
• Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
• Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
• Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
• Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)
• Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle)
• UC San Diego (UCSD) - Scripps
• New Mexico Tech (NMT)
• University of Utah (UU)
• University of North Dakota - EERC (UNDEERC)
CLIENTS & PROJECTS
US FEDERAL PARTNERS
STATE CALIFORNIA PARTNERS
Department of Energy (DOE)
Carbon Storage FAQs
Department of Transportation (DOT) - PHMSA
US Department of Transportation
California Energy Commission (CEC)
California Energy Commission
WORKING WITH C02
Carbon Storage Services
Advancing Climate Solutions
A Path to Carbon Neutrality
University of Wyoming
Storing CO2 from Coal Power Plants
WORKING WITH GEOTHERMAL
An industry leader in sustatinable energy
Fiber Optic Sensing Association (FOSA)
Welcome to the Fiber Optic Sensing Organization
Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)
The place for Oil and Gas Professionals
Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG)
Connecting the World of Applied Geophysics
16543 Arminta Street
Van Nuys, CA 91406-1745
To apply for a position with the Paulsson, Inc. team, please send a cover letter together with your C.V. to: email@example.com
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Advanced Optical Sensing
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