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Underground Gas Storage (UGS)

Paulsson, Inc. provides surveying, monitoring and real-time in-field data processing and analysis of Underground Gas Storage (UGS) reservoirs. We perform these unique services using our proprietary fiber optic sensors, interrogators, processing and imaging technologies. This includes the emerging field of green hydrogen for long term energy storage.

SURVEYING

Underground Gas Storage (UGS) monitoring and surveying is the process of collecting data in and about the subsurface environment in order to secure and safe guard storage sites for Natural Gas (NG or CH4). UGS monitoring and surveying are critical aspects of the effective economic use of natural gas, as it allows for the safe, effective and economic storage of gas to be used for high-demand periods or in times of supply disruption.

​The UGS monitoring and surveying process involves a combination of geophysical and geotechnical techniques. Geophysical monitoring and surveying is using remote sensing tools, such as seismometers, pressure and temperature sensors, and magnetometers, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), to measure subsurface features such as the velocity and density  of rock formations and the associated pore fluids such as natural gas. Geotechnical surveying, on the other hand, involves drilling boreholes and taking soil and rock samples to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the subsurface formations.

Surveying services for UGS include the following:

Site Selection: The initial step in the UGS monitoring and surveying process is site selection, which involves identifying potential storage sites based on geological and geophysical data. This may involve analyzing historical data of natural gas fields, conducting field surveys, and using modeling software to predict the likelihood of suitable formations for storing natural gas in the subsurface environment.

​Geophysical Surveys: Geophysical monitoring and surveying involves using remote sensing tools such as seismometers, pressure and temperature sensors, and magnetometers, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to measure subsurface features. This helps to identify areas where natural gas reserves may be present and to map the geological structures that could useful for the long term storage of gas.

​Geotechnical Surveys: Geotechnical surveying involves drilling boreholes and taking soil and rock samples to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the subsurface environment. This helps to determine the structural stability of the site and identify any potential hazards that could affect the storage of natural gas.

​Environmental Monitoring: UGS surveying also includes environmental monitoring to assess the impact of gas storage on the surrounding environment. This may involve monitoring air and water quality, as well as the potential for soil and groundwater contamination.

​Risk Assessment: Risk assessment is an important part of UGS surveying, as it helps to identify potential hazards and assess the safety of the storage site. This may involve analyzing the structural integrity of the storage facility, assessing the risk of gas leaks or explosions, and evaluating the potential for environmental damage.

UGS monitoring and surveying is a critical component of natural gas exploration and production, and involves a range of geophysical, geotechnical, and environmental monitoring techniques to identify potential storage sites, assess their suitability, and minimize risks to the surrounding environment.

MONITORING

Underground Gas Storage (UGS) Monitoring is the process of continuously record data and asses the performance and integrity of natural gas storage facilities located in underground geological formations. The goal of UGS monitoring is to detect and address any potential issues or risks associated with the storage of natural gas, ensuring safe and efficient operation of the facility.

​UGS monitoring typically involves a range of activities, including physical inspections, data analysis, and environmental monitoring. Here is a breakdown of some of the monitoring services involved in UGS:

​Physical Inspections: Regular physical inspections of the storage facility are conducted to identify any potential issues or defects. This includes visual inspections, structural assessments, and equipment checks to ensure that all components are functioning correctly.

​Gas Volume Monitoring: UGS facilities must continuously monitor the volume of gas stored in the reservoirs. This is typically done using pressure sensors, which measure the pressure of the gas within the storage formation, and temperature sensors, which measure the temperature of the surrounding rock.

​Gas Composition Monitoring: The composition of natural gas can change over time due to the presence of impurities or chemical reactions. Therefore, UGS facilities must regularly monitor the composition of the stored gas.

​Integrity Testing: Integrity testing involves periodically assessing the integrity of the storage reservoirs and wells using techniques such as pressure testing, cement bond logging, and acoustic emission testing. These tests are designed to detect any potential leaks or defects in the reservoirs and wells.

Environmental Monitoring: UGS facilities must monitor the surrounding environment to detect any potential impacts on air and water quality, soil stability, or ecological systems. This includes monitoring emissions from the facility, as well as the quality of the groundwater and surface water in the surrounding area.

​Emergency Response Planning: UGS facilities must have a robust emergency response plan in place to address any potential incidents or accidents that may occur during storage operations. This includes training personnel on emergency response procedures, conducting regular drills, and maintaining adequate response equipment.

​UGS monitoring is a critical aspect of natural gas storage operations and involves a range of physical inspections, data analysis, and environmental monitoring techniques to ensure safe and efficient operation of the facility.

REAL-TIME IN-FIELD DATA ANALYSIS

Real-time in-field data processing and analysis of Underground Gas Storage (UGS) reservoirs using fiber optic sensors, interrogators, processing, and imaging technologies is a state-of-the-art technique for continuously monitoring the integrity and performance of UGS facilities. This approach involves the use of advanced sensing and imaging technologies to collect and process data in real-time, providing operators with detailed insights into the state of the reservoirs.

​Fiber optic sensors are an important component of this approach. These sensors are capable of measuring a range of physical parameters, including seismic, acoustic, temperature, pressure, and strain, with high precision and accuracy. The sensors are typically installed within the reservoirs and wells, where they can provide continuous measurements of key parameters.

​Interrogators are used to collect data from the fiber optic sensors. These devices convert the optical signals from the sensors into digital data, which can be processed and analyzed in real-time. Interrogators use advanced signal processing algorithms to filter out noise and extract meaningful data from the sensor signals.

Processing and imaging technologies are used to analyze the data collected from the sensors and interrogators. This involves using advanced algorithms to identify patterns, trends, and anomalies in the data, and generate visualizations of the reservoirs in real-time. This allows operators to monitor the performance of the reservoirs, detect potential issues or risks, and take proactive measures to address them.

​Some of the benefits of real-time in-field data analysis of UGS reservoirs using fiber optic sensors, interrogators, processing, and imaging technologies include:

Improved Safety: Continuous monitoring of the reservoirs using fiber optic sensors and real-time data analysis can detect safety issues, such as gas leaks or well integrity failures, before they become critical.

​Enhanced Performance: Real-time monitoring of the reservoirs can help operators optimize storage operations, ensuring that gas is stored and retrieved efficiently and effectively.

Cost Savings: By detecting potential issues early and taking proactive measures to address them, operators can reduce downtime and maintenance costs, dramatically improving the overall cost-effectiveness of UGS operations.

Real-time in-field data analysis of UGS reservoirs using Paulsson's proprietary 3C fiber optic sensors, interrogators, processing, and imaging technologies represent cutting-edge approaches to UGS monitoring that offers improved safety, enhanced performance, and cost savings for operators.

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